50 Books That Were Made Into Movies or TV Shows
Have you ever wondered where filmmakers get a large portion of their ideas? Well, you are not alone in that thought. Certain filmmakers get some of their ideas and inspiration from books dating back to the 1800s. Filmmakers and tv show producers have looked to books for quite a while now, and almost every good movie and tv show comes from a book series. Authors such as Stephen King and J.R.R. Tolkien are behind some of the greatest films produced in Hollywood.
One of the reasons filmmakers look to books for story ideas is that books are usually full of detailed information and are the best way to ingest a story, so what better way than to make some of these books come to life. Books that have turned into films or tv shows don't always work out as it comes down to both the writers and directors. But when these films work, they end up being a masterpiece; if you are interested in finding out which books have turned into tv shows or movies, you should check out the following 50 books.
The Hobbit has been around since 1937 and is one of the most popular fantasy books in the past 100 years. J.R.R. Tolkein is the man behind the book and responsible for the world of Middle-Earth. Ever since Tolkien was a teenager, he started making the world of Middle-Earth and created a deep history of a made-up world.
The Hobbit was the first of many books written by Tolkien, and Peter Jackson had a deep love for all of his works. Jackson decided to make the book into a movie trilogy since he saw how well The Lord of the Rings films did.
The Harry Potter series is another book series that became blockbuster movies and is one of the most successful book to movie adaptations. The seven books were released over ten years, and all were by J.K. Rowling, who created the whole universe all by herself. The books are for children, but everyone enjoys them because of the engaging story and fantasy take on the world.
Warner Bros. Pictures saw the potential of how big this series could be if it was adapted to the big screen and released the first film in 2001. The film was an ultimate success and led to the production of the rest of the movie.
The Lord of the Rings
The Lord of the Rings series is another creation of J.R.R. Tolkien and the sequel to The Hobbit. Tolkien again blew everyone's mind away as these three books were the pioneers of fantasy writing. Tolkien wrote the Lord of the Rings series because he felt that England didn't have any mythology and wanted to create stories that would fit its culture.
Peter Jackosn was the man that transformed these legendary books into one of the best trilogies that have hit the big screens. He spent around nine years making the three films that earned him multiple Academy Awards and created films that will never be duplicated.
Dune is a science fiction novel written by Frank Herbert in 1965 and is the first book out of the Dune saga. So many people loved the book that it won the Nebula Award for Best Novel. The story is set in the future and follows a teenager named Paul Atreides, that must lead his people through dangerous situations.
Dune has been turned into a movie twice, the first film was released in 1984 by David Lynch and had a big following, but some fans were let down with the story. The second film recently came out in 2021 and was a better adaptation set to have two more movies in the works.
The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe
The Lion, the Witch, and the Wardrobe was written by C.S. Lewis and was released in 1950. This was the first book out of the seven series of The Chronicles of Narnia, which was written over six years. People over the years have enjoyed this series because it transports you to a land where mythical creatures and animals can talk.
Since people have been reading this series for over 50 years, filmmakers adapted it into three films that pleased both people who were new to the series and the long-time fans of the book. These films set some records at the box office and further prove that book adaptions can be blockbusters.
That is right, The Shining is based on a novel that was written by Stephen King, which had the same name. The book was written in 1977, which was only three years before Stanley Kubrick released the film. Stephen King has had so many of his books turned into movies, and tv shows that it is hard to keep count.
Stanley Kubrick loved the book so much that he asked King for the rights to the story, which he gladly granted. Kubrick was able to show people things that King wouldn't have been able to describe in his book.
The Green Mile
The Green Mile is another Stephen King novel that has been turned into a movie and won a couple of film awards in the process. The book was released in 1996, which was only three years before Frank Darabont released the film.
The story of the novel is about an inmate that has the ability to heal people mysteriously. Tom Hanks and Michael Clarke Duncan portrayed two main characters in the story and were exceptional with their performances. The film was so good that it was nominated for four Academy Awards and Duncan showed everyone that he was a great actor.
Band of Brothers
Band of Brothers is a novel based on the 101st Airborne unit written by Stephen E. Ambrose, who was one of the soldiers in the regiment. The book follows the team from when they land in Normandy to when they storm Hitler's Eagle Nest. The fantastic story that this man tells about the brave men he fought with is unbelievable, and why it was made into a tv series.
Tom Hanks, Erik Henderson, and Steven Spielberg collaborated with each other to create the HBO series Band of Brothers, which was released in 2001. The filmmakers worked closely with the remaining survivors of the regiment, which is what makes the story historically accurate.
The Great Gatsby
The Great Gatsby is an American novel that has been around since 1925 and has been read by millions of people who find the book fascinating. The Great Gatsby was written by F. Scott Fitzgerald, who wanted to create a story about the Jazz Age in America and was able to capture the period perfectly.
Four film adaptations have come out over the years, with the first one being released in 1926 and the last one being released in 2013, which starred Leonardo DiCaprio as Gatsby. The latest film got a lot of praise as the film's art style fit perfectly with the period.
A Song of Fire and Ice
A Song of Fire and Ice is a fantasy novel series written by George R.R. Martin, who created a whole medieval fantasy world with multiple factions who must interact with each other. The first novel was called Game of Thrones, and there have been four books released after it. Martin plans on releasing seven books but hasn't been working on them recently.
HBO picked up the rights to the series and worked closely with Martin to create eight seasons that people would fall in love with. The show ended up passing the story in the books, and the director had to wing it but had the help of Martin so that it wasn't a disaster.
The Hunger Games
The Hunger Games is a novel series that is written by Suzanne Collins and is about a dystopian world where different regions have to fight one another to survive. The trilogy was written over two years, first released in 2008. These books were the top sellers in America when they were released and was why filmmakers started thinking of ideas for a film.
The first film was released in 2012 and is titled The Hunger Games, and three other films were released that followed the series, which starred Jennifer Lawernce, who made these films famous. A prequel in production will explain some of the backstories and should be coming out next year.
Patriot Games is a book that was written by Tom Clancy, who was famous for writing thriller-type novels. The book was released in 1987 and is another novel that follows the story of Jack Ryan, who would become one of Clancy's most famous characters. Clancy's books were always about foreign espionage and wild chances that would always leave you on the edge of your seat.
Film director Phillip Noyce was a big fan of Tom Clancy's work and wanted to make a movie from his novel Patriot Games. The film was released in 1992 and starred Harrison Ford, who portrays Jack Ryan.
The Hunt for Red October
The Hunt for Red October is another Tom Clancy classic novel that was so good that filmmakers wanted to make an adaptation. The book was published in 1984 and followed the story of a Soviet submarine that has Russia's latest missiles, and the commander of the submarine decides to defect to the American side. This is another story that involves Jack Ryan, who is responsible for contacting the Soviet commander.
The film that stars Sean Connery and Alec Baldwin was released in 1990 and followed the novel's story. This film did fantastic at the box office as it made around $200 million off of a $30 million budget.
Rita Hayworth and Shawshank Redemption
Rita Hayworth and Shawshank Redemption is a short story novel that was written by Stephen King and was published in 1982. The story is about a man named Andy Dufresne who escapes prison and has the help of Rita Hayworth's poster to cover his escape. There were a few people who heard of the novel, one of them was Frank Darabont, who was looking to make the short story into a movie.
The Shawshank Redemption was released in 1994 and starred Tim Robbins and Morgan Freeman. The film ended up being such a masterpiece that it was nominated for seven Academy Awards and received praise from everyone that watched it.
The Body is another short story novel written by Stephen King and is part of his collection named Different Seasons. The book was published in 1982, and of course, it was made into a film just a couple of years later. The relationship that King has with Hollywood is unique, and it has been working out for the two for years now.
In 1986 Stand By Me was released by Rob Reiner, who based the movie on the Stephen King novel. This was a great movie adaptation and ended up being nominated for several film awards and has become a classic 80s movie.
Clear and Present Danger
Clear and Present Danger was written by Tom Clancy and is a political thriller that involves Clancy's favorite character Jack Ryan. The book was published in 1989 and is the sequel to The Cardinal of the Kremlin, in the Jack Ryan series. All of Tom Clancy's books are intense, and his attention to detail is outstanding.
Phillip Noyce was behind the film Clear and Present Danger which featured Harrison Ford and was released in 1994. Harrison reprised the role of Jack Ryan after starring in Patriot Games and even worked with the same director as they seemed to work well together before. The film ended up being a blockbuster and smashed at the box office.
Not too many people know that Jaws was actually a novel before it became one of the most popular movies in the world. Peter Benchley wrote Jaws because he was fascinated with sharks since he was a young boy and thought a thriller about these creatures would be perfect for writing about. He published the book in 1974 and got the attention of Steven Spielberg.
Spielberg enjoyed the book so much and saw what he could do with the story if he made it into a film. Benchley gladly approved for his book to be made into a movie but ended up regretting it because of the negative impact the movie had on the shark habitat.
This is another film that nobody ever thought would have come from a book, but Jurassic Park is a sci-fi book that was written by Michael Crichton, who published the book in 1990. Jurassic Park was part of a two-part series that was later combined and named Jurassic World. The story is about an amusement park that has real-life dinosaurs who end up breaking out and reak havoc.
Steven Spielberg is a big reader, and when he read Jurassic Park, he saw the perfect vision for a film. In 1993, Jurrasic Park was released in theaters, and the world fell in love with this film as it introduced new animatronics that made these dinosaurs come to life.
The Godfather was written by Mario Puzo in 1969 and is labeled one of the best Mafia books ever written. The story follows a crime family located in New York City and goes through the crazy things they have to do to keep the business running smoothly. There are five books in The Godfather series that detail how these families would operate.
Francis Ford Coppola had always been a fan of the Mafia era, and once he read The Godfather series, he knew that he had to make a film adaptation. In 1972 The Godfather was released and praised by everyone who watched the film. Following the success of the first film, another two films were made afterward, The Godfather II and The Godfather III.
Alice's Adventures In Wonderland
Alice's Adventures In Wonderland is one of the oldest books on this list that has been made into a film. The book was written by Lewis Carroll, who intended the novel to be read by children. Amazingly, people fell in love with the story over the years and would read it to all of their children.
In the 1950s, Disney decided to make an animated film based on the novel and called it Alice in Wonderland, which became extremely popular due to the art style and the fascinating story. In 2010, Tim Burton released a live-action Alice in Wonderland movie featuring Johnny Depp, and it ended up making over $1 billion at the box office, which broke some records.
Crazy Rich Asians
This is another film that not too many people know was a novel before it became a comedy film. Crazy Rich Asians was written by Kevin Kwan, who published the book in 2013. Kwan's intention for writing this book is that he wanted people to see the funny side of North American Asians that people rarely see.
The book was so successful that Kwan wrote two sequels, and in 2018, John M. Chu decided to make a comedy film out of it because he loved the story so much. The film ended up doing well at the box office and was an instant hit, so much so that there are even talks of some sequels in the making, but as of right now, they are just rumors.
Of course, Fight Club was a novel before it became a movie; there is just too much information in this film for it to have not been. Fight Club was written by Chuck Palahniuk in 1996 and is about a man that is suffering from insomnia. Several twists and turns are located throughout the book, which makes it pretty interesting.
Once David Fincher got his hands on the book, he knew that it was something special and needed to be formatted onto the big screen. In 1999, Fight Club hit the theaters and featured Brad Pitt and Edward Norton, who delivered terrific performances. The film would go on to become a true classic.
To Kill A Mockingbird
Everyone should know the novel To Kill A Mockingbird as every school made you read it for class. Harper Lee wrote the book in 1960, which was the perfect time for this book to come out as there was a lot of racial tension in America. The story is about racial inequality in America and became an instant hit once it was released as the story was powerful.
Two years after the book was published, the film was released in 1962 and directed by Robert Mulligan. The film was just as good as the book and won three Academy Awards for the actors that had terrific performances.
The Wonderful Wizard of Oz
The Wonderful Wizard of Oz was written by L. Frank Baum in 1900 since then, this book has become very popular in the United States, and when it was first released, it sold out immediately. Everyone enjoyed this book because it was about a fantasy world that no one ever thought about, and the story behind it was captivating.
This book was so popular that Victor Fleming decided that he wanted to create a live-action film, which was released in 1939 and ended up being the first film to use color. This blew everyone's mind away and soon became the most popular film in the world.
Sense and Sensibility
The oldest book on the list is Sense and Sensibility, which was written by Jane Austen in 1811. The story is about three women that end up in a predicament that leaves them looking for a new home to live in. The story was quite different from other novels at the time, which made it stand out.
It took a long time for the novel to be made into a movie, but Ang Lee was up for the challenge. Sense and Sensibility were released in 1995 and featured Emma Thompson and Kate Winslet. Since the novel was pretty famous, the film did exceptionally well in the theaters.
Many people's favorite American films were a book before it was ever thought of as a film, and Forrest Gump is no different. Forrest Gump was written by Winston Groom in 1986 and is about a famous man that did almost everything in America. Once Robert Zemeckis read the book, he knew that it would be a film that everyone would love, and boy was he right.
Forrest Gump was released in 1994 and featured Tom Hanks, who made this film come to life; if it weren't for Hanks' fantastic performance, the film wouldn't be the same. According to statistics, this movie has become a classic and is one of the most rewatched movies in the world.
The Princess Bride
The Princess Bride was written by William Goldman in 1973 and is a fantasy romance novel that ended up becoming a famous film during the 80s. The book became pretty popular as it had a touch of comedy, romance, fantasy, and drama. It didn't take long for a director to want to make this book into a great film.
Rob Reiner was up to the challenge and created the film The Princess Bride in 1987, which features several actors, including Cary Elwes and Chris Sarandon. Since many people read the book in high school, the film had tremendous success and has become a classic film from the 80s.
Hidden Figures was written by Margot Lee Shetterly in 2016 as she wanted to capture the lives of several African-American women that helped NASA with calculations for the space program to send men to the moon. The book ended up being a New York Times Best Seller as the story behind these women was eye-opening and fascinating.
Theodore Melfi instantly knew that this story would be a great film and released the movie the same year that the book came out in 2016. It was an instant hit in the theaters as everyone was interested in hearing the true story of these amazing women.
Schindler's Ark, also known as Schindler's List, was written in 1982 by Thomas Keneally. Keneally heard the story from one of the survivors of Schindler's List, who wanted the story of Oskar Schindler to be heard by everyone. Schindler saved hundreds of Jewish people during World War II by having them work in his factory to avoid the camps.
Steven Spielberg wanted to make this novel into a film and did it in the perfect way possible. The film was released in 1993 and featured Liam Neeson, who played the famous Oskar Schindler. The film was nominated for 12 Academy Awards and several other film awards. This is a heartbreaking story that should be read or seen by everyone.
Wiseguy: Life in a Mafia Family was written by Nicholas Pileggi in 1985 and followed the life of Henry Hill, who is notorious for being an informant for the police. It was a true account of Hill's life when he was in the Mafia and the insane things he had to do.
Martin Scorsese is the ultimate director that focused on making Mafia movies throughout his career, and when he read Wiseguy and had a talk with Henry Hill, he felt that the movie adaptation would be something big. Goodfellas was released in 1990 and starred Robert De Niro, Ray Liotta, and Joe Pesci. The film was so well written and directed that it was nominated for six Academy Awards.
No Country For Old Men
Not too many people know that No Country For Old Men was a novel before it came out in the theaters, and that probably is the reason why it ended up doing so well in the theaters. Cormac McCarthy wrote the book in 2005, and the intention was for the story to later be turned into a film since he wrote it in a screenplay format.
It was only a matter of time until some director picked this story up, which ended up being two people, Joel Coen and Ethan Coen. The Coen Brothers released the film in 2007 and surprised everyone with the quality of the story. It crushes it at the box office and is labeled a modern age western.
This tv show adaptation took people by surprise since most tv shows didn't come from books during the 60s, but MASH was a novel before it became one of the most popular tv shows in America. MASH: A Novel About Three Army Doctors was written by Richard Hooker in 1968. The novel is full of jokes and funny skits that director Robert Altman thought would make a perfect tv show.
In 1972, the tv show was released and instantly became a favorite among Americans as it was set during the Korean War, which many veterans related to. The tv show lasted over ten years and had 11 seasons produced during that period.
One Flew Over The Cuckoo's Nest
One Flew Over The Cuckoo's Nest was written by Ken Kesey in 1962 and is about a patient at an Oregon psychiatric hospital. Many people have labeled this novel to be the best that has ever been written and has been read worldwide by millions. The book was first turned into a Broadway show that was very successful, and in 1975, director Milos Forman released the film in theaters.
The film starred Jack Nicholson, who was the perfect candidate for the film, and because of his performance, the film was one of the few to win all five major Academy Awards and several other film awards.
The Silence of the Lambs
The Silence of the Lambs was written by Thomas Harris in 1988 and is the second installment of Red Dragon, which follows the life of Hannibal Lecter. This psychological horror is unique in every way and the reason why director Jonathan Demme wanted to make this novel into a film.
The Silence of the Lambs was released in theaters in 1991 and starred Jodie Foster and Anthony Hopkins. This movie was filmed so well that it was the third movie to win all five Academy Awards and the most recent one to do so. The film has become one of the most influential movies to come out, which many directors look up to.
Many people know of the film American Psycho, a disturbing movie about a bank investor who fantasizes about becoming a serial killer. What people don't know about the film is that it was a novel before and was written by Bret Easton Ellis in 1991.
Director Mary Harron read the book during the 90s and knew that this would be an excellent film adaptation. In 2000, American Psycho was released in theaters and shocked everyone that watched the film as the scenes were pretty brutal, and the story behind the movie was very intriguing. Although the film didn't win awards, people still look at the movie as a masterpiece.
Gone With The Wind
Probably the most popular book on the list, Gone With the Wind was written by Margaret Mitchell in 1936 and has been a favorite among book readers all over America. This book became so popular and sold so many copies that Mitchell was given the Pulitzer Prize for Fiction.
Victor Fleming saw the potential of what the novel would be if it was turned into a movie and decided to direct the film just three years after the book was written. It's a good thing that Fleming produced this film because it became one of the most loved films in America and received 10 Academy Awards.
The Notebook was actually a novel before it was turned into a movie, and that wasn't a surprise since the book was so great. Nicholas Sparks wrote The Notebook in 1996, a romantic novel that follows the story of two lovers.
The novel had a tremendous amount of success and sold millions of copies; because of this, many filmmakers started looking into making a movie adaptation. Director Nick Cassavetes decided to take on the challenge, and in 2004, The Notebook was released in theaters. The film was successful right off the bat and became a favorite among women all over the world.
Memoirs of a Geisha
Memoirs of a Geisha is a novel that was written by Arthur Golden in 1997. Golden wanted to write a book about the struggles of the geisha girls in Japan before, during, and after World War II. Although the story is fiction, the setting is historical and accurate to what geisha women were dealing with.
In 2005, Memoirs of a Geisha was turned into a movie directed by Rob Marshall, who wanted to capture this story on film. The film did exceptionally well at the box office, although it was all in a foreign language, and ended up getting nominated for six Academy Awards.
The Da Vinci Code
The Da Vinci Code was written by Dan Brown, who is famous for writing mystery thriller novels. The book was published in 2003 and is the second installment in the series. The story follows a man by the name of Robert Langdon who is trying to solve one of the world's biggest mysteries, and there are several organizations that don't want him to find anything out.
The Da Vinci Code was released in theaters in 2006 and was directed by Ron Howard, who is famous for being in the tv show Happy Days. Tom Hanks portrayed the main character, and everything seemed to work out. The film did exceptionally well at the box office, mostly because everyone knew what the story was about and wanted to see how it would translate on the big screen.
Another great novel that was turned into a movie is Gone Girl, which was written by Gillian Flynn and was published in 2012. This crime novel is about a woman that is trying to frame her husband for her disappearance. There are a lot of twists and turns, which makes it a perfect candidate for a film adaptation.
Just two years later, director David Fincher got the rights to the story and made the film adaptation. The film stars Ben Affleck and Rosamund Pike, who ends up being a perfect duo in the movie and one of the reasons why it did so well at the box office.
The Last of the Mohicans
The Last of the Mohicans is one of the oldest books on the list that has been converted into a film. The narrative novel was written in 1826 by James Fenimore Cooper and described the struggle of the Mohican Native American tribe that was involved in the French and Indian War that was raging on in the Americas.
Michael Mann read the book when he was growing up and always thought that it would be a great film if it were done right. In 1992, The Last of the Mohicans was released in theaters and became a favorite among film fans all over the world. It ended up winning the Academy Award for Best Sound and is a classic that is still loved.
The Twilight Saga
The Twilight Saga is one of the most significant novel series to come out within the last 20 years. The Twilight Saga was written by Stephenie Meyer, who wrote all the novels from 2005 to 2008. These novels had a considerable following, and girls seemed to love them more than anything else. There was a lot of talk in Hollywood about who would make these novels into movies.
The first director to take on the series was Catherine Hardwicke, who set the table for the rest of the saga, which ended up doing exceptionally well since there was already a big following from the novels. The films came out right after the saga was written.
Holes was a trendy book during the late 90s and was read in schools all over America. Holes was written by Louis Sachar in 1998 and ended up being a masterpiece that many people have shared. The story follows the life of Stanley Yelnats, who is sent to a Texas correctional boot camp.
Not too long later in 2003, director Andrew Davis took charge and produced the film Holes in 2003. The film ended up being pretty successful as many people already knew about the book which boosted its popularity. Shia LaBeouf was the main character in the film and it started his Hollywood acting career.
The Outsiders is another excellent novel that was turned into a film; the novel was written by S.E. Hinton in 1967 and has been read by high schoolers ever since its release. The story is about a group of greasers who have trouble getting along with the rest of society and get into a challenging situation.
The film adaptation of the film came out in 1983 and was directed by Francis Ford Coppola. This was the perfect time for the film to be released as everyone in high school already knew about it, and it was actually well-liked. There are several actors that started their careers with this film, including Matt Dillon, Patrick Swayze, and Tom Cruise.
1984 is a trendy novel that was written by George Orwell and was published in 1949. What makes this novel extremely popular is Orwell somewhat predicted what is going on in the modern world with censorship and control. Many people around the world are afraid that the dystopian world that Orwell writes about eventually is what will happen in real life; hopefully, this isn't the case.
In 1984, the film 1984 was released in theaters and was directed by Michael Radford, who wanted to make his favorite book into a movie. Unfortunately, the movie didn't do so well in the theaters, but over the years, people have come to like it much more.
Interview With The Vampire
Interview With The Vampire was written by Anne Rice in 1976. The novel is about an ancient vampire that has lived for hundreds of years that tells his story to a news reporter. The book had a big following as the vampire subject started becoming a trend during the 70s.
It took many years before the novel was turned into a movie. Interview With The Vampire was released in 1994 and was directed by Neil Jordan. The film features Tom Cruise and Brad Pitt, which made this film very successful. The film did so well that it received an Oscar nomination for Best Art Direction and Best Orginal Score.
Frankenstein is another classic novel that eventually was turned into a movie when movies started getting easier to make. Frankenstein was written by Mary Shelley in 1818 and has been a favorite among readers for hundreds of years. This was one of the first horror novels that were written during that time and changed the way horror novels were written.
In 1931, Frankenstein was released in theaters and was directed by James Whale, who was always a fan of the novel ever since he read it when he was a child. The film was based on both the book and the play, which was how the iconic look of Frankenstein was created.
The War Of The Worlds
The War of the Worlds is a science fiction novel that was written by H.G. Wells and was published in 1897. Wells is considered one of the pioneers of science fiction novels as he was one of the few thinking this way during the early 1900s. The book is about an alien race that is looking to destroy humanity, and this was something that was never thought about until humans started learning more about space.
Steven Spielberg was the one that decided to make a film on the novel and released it in 2005. The film starred Tom Cruise, which made this film extremely popular and made around $600 million at the box office.
Dracula is another old novel that was written in 1897 by Bram Stoker that was turned into a movie. The book is about a vampire named Dracula who lives in a Transylvania castle. Stoker was a big fan of Transylvanian folklore and studied it for several years before he wrote the novel.
In 1931, the film Dracula was released and became one of the most popular horror films in the world. The film was directed by Tod Browning and starred Bela Lugosi, who portrayed Dracula himself. Many people believe that this was the start of the Hollywood horror film genre and the reason why people love horror stories.
The Bourne Trilogy
Last but not least is the Bourne Trilogy which was written by Robert Ludlum, who started the series in 1980 and finished in 1990. The three books are about an American spy named Jason Bourne who deals with the utmost secret espionage missions.
Doug Liman was the first director to produce the first film in the series, which was released in 2002 and starred Matt Damon as Jason Bourne. The trilogy ended up doing tremendously well in the theaters and became a favorite among fans of spy movies. Damon expressed how much he enjoyed these films, which are full of action and keep you engaged.
I hope you have enjoyed these books that were eventually turned into movies or tv shows, be sure to check out our other articles.